Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

SSL

Secure sockets layer is Internet security protocol, which works on internet. It was develop in 1995 for privacy, authentication, and data integrity in Internet communication. To provide a high degree of privacy, SSL encrypts data that is transmitted across the web. This means that anyone who tries to intercept this data will only see a garbled mix of characters that is nearly impossible to decrypt.

SSL has an authentication process called a handshake between two communicating devices to ensure that both devices are really who they claim to be. It also digitally signs data in order to provide data integrity, verifying that the data is not tampered with before reaching it receiver.

Importance of SSL

SSL was create to correct this problem and protect user privacy. By encrypting any data that goes between a user and a web server, SSL ensures that anyone who intercepts the data can only see a scrambled mess of characters. The consumer’s credit card number is now safe, only visible to the shopping website where they entered it.

SSL also stops certain kinds of cyber attacks: It authenticates web servers, which is important because attackers will often try to set up fake websites to trick users and steal data. It also prevents attackers from tampering with data in transit, like a tamper-proof seal on a medicine container.

SSL Certificate

An SSL certificate is like an ID card or a badge that proves someone is who they say they are. SSL certificates are store and display on the Web by a website’s or application’s server. One of the most important pieces of information in an SSL certificate is the website’s public key. The public key makes encryption possible. A user’s device views the public key and uses it to establish secure encryption keys with the web server. Meanwhile the web server also has a private key that is not known to everyone except the holder.

Certificates

  • Single-domain: A single-domain SSL certificate applies to only one domain (a domain is the name of a website, like www.cloudflare.com).
  • Wildcard: Like a single-domain certificate, a wildcard SSL certificate applies to only one domain. However, it also includes that domain’s subdomains. For example, a wildcard certificate could cover www.cloudflare.com, blog.cloudflare.com, and developers.cloudflare.com, while a single-domain certificate could only cover the first.
  • Multi-domain: As the name indicates, multi-domain SSL certificates can apply to multiple unrelated domains.
  • Domain Validation: This is the least-stringent level of validation, and the cheapest. All a business has to do is prove they control the domain.
  • Organization Validation: This is a more hands-on process: The CA directly contacts the person or business requesting the certificate. These certificates are more trustworthy for users.
  • Extended Validation: This requires a full background check of an organization before the it certificate can be issue.