Forging and its Advantages

Forging is in-budget tool which is not expensive investment in tools and saves material usage. Drop forging is available in a wide range of ferrous and non-ferrous materials ranging from standard carbon & alloys steels, duplex, super duplex, nickel superalloys, and other non-ferrous alloys. Size ranges from as little as a few grams up to many tons.

Advantages of Forging

Strength and Weight Ratio

In the closed die drop forging process, a metal bar or billet is heat before being place in the die. Then hammered until the metal completely fills the die cavity. During this process of plastic deformation, the material’s grain structure becomes compressed and aligned to the component shape which imparts greatly increased directional ­­strength with reduced stress concentrations in corners and fillets.

Structural Integrity

Forging a component greatly reduces the possibility of metallurgical defects such as porosity or alloy segregation as found in some castings. This leads to reduced scrap, a uniform response to heat treatment, and predictable component performance in the field. There is virtually no possibility of porosity being introduce during the forging process. Even this can be check with a low-cost ultrasonic test after manufacture. The possibility of small cracks can be manage with a simple crack detection procedure towards the end of the process.

Cost Profits

Moving from machined-from-solid to forged components generates a saving in raw material usage. Starting from a near-net-shape forging can also reduce machining times. This means companies moving from machine-from-solid to machine-from-forging can generate enough capacity on their plant to save capital outlay on new machinery, as their business grows.

Customers often assume that the initial tool cost required for near net shape forging is prohibitive. In fact, forging dies and tools are quite simple in construction and are relatively low cost, making them viable even for jobs with low quantities.

Die Forging

Closed die forging tools typically last between 5000 and 7000 cycles in more common carbon materials. But can be as low as 100 cycles where very complex shapes are require in high-strength super-alloys. Die life expectancies are greatly reduce by sharp corners, material forge-ability, and very close tolerances. Some of these limitations can offset by incorporating multiple impressions into the die design or by pre-forming the metal billet before putting it into the dies.

Forging cycle times are rapid

A typical forging is often complete within 10-30 seconds. However, some complex shapes require complex procedures where the level of skill and experience of the Stamper plays a key part.

Opportunities

This process is suitable for low-volume as well as one-offs. This is because it produces parts with superior strength-to-weight properties that cannot be manufacture in any other way. Small volumes can be machined from solid. But they will have to compensate for reduced strength brought about by random grain alignment.

It is possible to form undercuts and form joints with secondary operations. These processes can be used to make a huge range of component sizes and geometries.