Acute Coronary Syndrome

acute coronary

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a three type coronary artery disease. That causes unstable angina and heart attack due to artery blockage. Every year thousands of people suffers from ACS, it is becoming common syndrome. It can be control by opening artery and restore blood to your heart, so as to work properly.

What is Acute Coronary Syndrome?

Acute coronary syndrome occur when a blockage causes blood flow to your heart to suddenly slow or stop. People with ACS can experience unstable angina or a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Common signs include chest pain or pressure (angina), shortness of breath (dyspnea) or dizziness.

Acute coronary syndrome is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Prompt treatment is important to ease symptoms and prevent complications. If you think you’re having a heart attack, take an aspirin and ambulance immediately.

Types of Acute Coronary Syndrome

There are mainly three types of ACS- unstable angina, Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

  1. Unstable angina-This involves sudden, unexpected chest pain or pressure, even while resting. It’s a warning sign of a heart attack and occurs when stable angina worsens.
  2. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction- An NSTEMI is a heart attack that providers can detect with blood tests. But not with an electrocardiogram (EKG). It means your coronary arteries aren’t fully block or were block for a short amount of time.
  3. ST-elevation myocardial infarction– A STEMI is a much more severe heart attack. That providers can detect with blood tests and EKG. It occurs when blood flow to your heart is fully block for a long time. Affecting a large part of your heart.

Causes of ACS

Heart needs continuous flow blood to work properly. Coronary arteries supply the blood to heart. Sometimes, a gradual buildup of fat and cholesterol (plaque) hardens and narrows your arteries (atherosclerosis). Acute coronary syndrome can occur suddenly when this plaque tears or splits open.

A blood clot forms over the opening, narrowing or blocking blood flow to a part of your heart. Which is call the myocardium. The heart can’t get enough oxygen. Lack of oxygen (ischemia) damages the heart muscle, leading to unstable angina or heart attack.


 Your symptoms also depend on your age, sex and other medical conditions, like diabetes.

Signs of ACS typically occur without warning, even while you rest. The syndrome often causes chest pain or discomfort (angina). This can feel like:

  • Aching.
  • Burning.
  • Heaviness.
  • Numbness.
  • Pressure.
  • Tightness.

The sensation may spread to your left shoulder, arms, neck, back or jaw. However, some people don’t have chest symptoms at all.

Other common symptoms include:

  • Dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting.
  • Excessive, sudden sweating (diaphoresis).
  • Fatigue.
  • Racing or pounding heart (heart palpitations)
  • Upper abdominal pain


Acute coronary syndrome treatment focuses on relieving pain and improving blood flow. So your heart can work as well as possible, as quickly as possible. Your healthcare provider recommends treatment based on the specific condition you have. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and procedures to open your arteries and restore heart function.